flying drone in the sky - underwater drone under the sea

Photography and Videography with Flying and Underwater Drones


The rapid advancement of technology continues to reshape the landscape of photography and videography. Among the most groundbreaking developments in recent years is the emergence of drone technology.

These high-flying and deep-diving gadgets have unlocked new doors in creative exploration, offering unparalleled aerial and underwater visuals.

In this guide, we will navigate the fascinating realm of drone photography and videography, delving into various drone types, their unique applications, and how to unleash your creativity using this innovative technology.

What are Drones?

Drones, commonly referred to as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or remotely piloted aircraft, are small, pilotless aircraft that can be operated from the ground or programmed to fly autonomously.

They come in two main categories: flying drones and underwater drones.

Flying Drones

The most prevalent type, flying drones, come in a wide array of shapes and sizes. Equipped with four to eight propellers, they can hover effortlessly and execute precise maneuvers.

Flying drones are the go-to for aerial photography and videography, as they capture extraordinary perspectives unattainable from the ground.

Some popular applications of flying drones include landscape photography, real estate promotion, and event coverage.

Flying drones for photography and videography

  • DJI Mavic Air 2: A compact yet powerful drone boasting a 48-megapixel camera and 4K video capabilities, perfect for adventurers seeking breathtaking aerial shots.
  • Parrot Anafi: This lightweight drone offers a 180-degree tilt camera and 4K HDR video, making it a versatile choice for capturing unique perspectives.
  • Autel Robotics EVO II: This drone features an 8K video resolution and a 48-megapixel camera, providing stunning aerial imagery for professional use.

Underwater Drones

Underwater drones, or Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicles (ROVs), are specially designed to explore and document the aquatic world.

These drones feature waterproof housings and cameras capable of withstanding underwater pressure and lighting conditions.

They are commonly used for marine research, underwater inspections, and capturing footage of marine life and aquatic landscapes.

Underwater drones for photography and videography

  • Chasing M2: This professional-grade underwater drone can dive up to 328 feet and features a 4K EIS camera, enabling you to capture steady and vivid underwater visuals.
  • Youcan Robot BW Space Pro: With a 6X zoom lens and 4K UHD camera, this underwater drone allows you to explore the depths and capture stunning imagery.
  • PowerVision PowerRay Wizard: This drone comes equipped with a 4K UHD camera and a 98-foot tether, allowing for extended underwater exploration and high-quality imaging.

How Are Drones Built?

Drones are crafted from lightweight materials such as carbon fiber, aluminum, or high-quality plastic to minimize weight and maximize agility.

The drone’s frame encases essential electrical components like motors, batteries, and flight controllers.

The camera system, often including a gimbal for stabilization, is mounted onto the frame to record high-quality images and videos.

How Flying Drones Are Built

Flying drones are made up of a multitude of interconnected components and systems, which together contribute to their remarkable capabilities in aerial photography and videography.

Key elements of a flying drone include the propulsion system, control system, navigation system, and supplementary features such as obstacle avoidance sensors.

Propulsion System

The propulsion system is a critical part of a drone’s overall functionality, typically comprising motors, propellers, and electronic speed controllers (ESCs).

The motors, often brushless for increased efficiency, provide the necessary power to spin the propellers, which in turn generate lift and thrust. ESCs regulate the motor’s speed, allowing for precise control over the drone’s movements.

Additionally, the drone’s frame is designed to support these components and distribute power, typically featuring lightweight materials such as carbon fiber or high-quality plastic.

Control System

The control system of a flying drone is essential for its operation and comprises two primary parts: the remote control (transmitter) and the flight controller.

The remote control enables the pilot to send commands to the drone wirelessly, typically using a 2.4 GHz frequency.

Modern remote controls often feature LCD screens or smartphone integration, providing real-time telemetry data and video feeds.

The flight controller, which is the drone’s “brain,” processes the input from the remote control and sensors, adjusting the speed of the motors to achieve the desired movements and maintain stability.

Navigation System

A vital component of any flying drone is its navigation system, which relies on GPS or other satellite-based systems like GLONASS or Galileo.

This allows the drone to determine its position, altitude, and orientation, enabling it to follow pre-programmed flight paths or return to its launch point autonomously.

Many drones also incorporate additional sensors such as barometers and inertial measurement units (IMUs) to augment the GPS data and enhance their positioning accuracy.

Obstacle Avoidance Sensors

Advanced drones often integrate supplementary features like obstacle avoidance sensors, which contribute to their ability to navigate complex environments safely.

These sensors may include ultrasonic, infrared, or LiDAR systems that can detect obstacles in the drone’s flight path, allowing it to automatically adjust its course and avoid collisions.

Some drones even employ artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to improve their obstacle detection and avoidance capabilities further.


Overall, the complexity of flying drones stems from the harmonious interplay of various components and systems, which together enable these remarkable machines to capture stunning aerial imagery while navigating through diverse and challenging environments.

How Underwater Drones Are Built

Underwater drones, while sharing some commonalities with aerial drones, possess distinct adaptations that enable them to operate efficiently in aquatic environments.

These adaptations encompass aspects of their construction, propulsion, control, and imaging systems, all of which work together to ensure optimal performance under challenging underwater conditions.


The construction of underwater drones involves the use of watertight compartments or pressure-resistant housings to encase and protect electrical components, including batteries, control boards, and communication systems.

This ensures that they remain functional even when submerged to considerable depths, where the water pressure can be immense.

The materials used for the drone’s frame and housing are often chosen for their strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, with options including high-quality plastics, aluminum alloys, and even titanium in some cases.


In contrast to aerial drones that use propellers for lift and thrust, underwater drones employ thrusters to generate propulsion and maneuverability in the water.

These thrusters typically consist of electric motors encased in watertight housings, driving impellers, or ducted propellers that produce water flow in the desired direction.

Control System

The control system of an underwater drone includes a combination of wired or wireless communication with the surface, where the pilot operates a remote control or a computer interface.

Advanced underwater drones may also feature autonomous control capabilities, enabling them to follow pre-programmed paths or perform specific tasks without constant input from the operator.

Navigation System

To ensure accurate navigation and positioning underwater, where GPS signals are ineffective, underwater drones often rely on a combination of inertial navigation systems (INS) and Doppler Velocity Logs (DVL).

These systems use accelerometers, gyros, and Doppler shift measurements to calculate the drone’s position, velocity, and orientation relative to its starting point.

In some cases, underwater drones may also incorporate acoustic positioning systems, such as Ultra-Short Baseline (USBL) or Long Baseline (LBL) systems, which use transducers and triangulation techniques to determine the drone’s location with high precision.

Specialized Cameras

Underwater drones are often equipped with specialized cameras that can capture high-quality images and videos in low-light conditions, which are prevalent in aquatic environments.

These cameras may feature large sensors, wide apertures, and high ISO capabilities to maximize light sensitivity, as well as advanced image processing algorithms to reduce noise and enhance clarity.

Additionally, underwater drones may also carry lighting systems, such as LEDs or strobes, to illuminate the scene and improve image quality further.

Some underwater drones even offer integrated sonar systems or other imaging technologies, like forward-looking infrared (FLIR) or multispectral cameras, providing additional data and insights for applications like scientific research, industrial inspection, or search and rescue missions.


Underwater drones exhibit a high degree of complexity in their design and functionality, tailored to the unique challenges of operating in aquatic environments.

Through the integration of specialized components and systems, these innovative machines can navigate, communicate, and capture stunning imagery beneath the surface, opening up new possibilities for exploration, documentation, and research in the underwater realm.

How to Take Aerial Photos and Videos with a Drone

aerial photo of green trees and blue sky

Capturing exceptional aerial photos and videos with flying drones involves a combination of technical knowledge, artistic vision, and an in-depth understanding of the drone’s capabilities.

To elevate your drone photography and videography skills, consider the following expert tips and techniques:

  1. Master the Controls: Develop proficiency with the drone’s controls, including the remote controller, any mobile applications that accompany it, and the onboard flight and camera systems. Understanding how to expertly navigate your drone and fine-tune its settings will enable you to capture superior images and videos with greater precision and control.
  2. Learn Advanced Flight Techniques: Beyond basic flight maneuvers, practice advanced techniques such as coordinated turns, smooth altitude changes, and precise hovering. These skills will allow you to position your drone optimally for the desired shot, as well as execute dynamic camera movements that can add drama and impact to your footage.
  3. Use Intelligent Flight Modes: Many modern drones come equipped with built-in flight modes that facilitate capturing creative shots. Modes such as orbit, follow-me, waypoint, and active track can help you achieve professional-looking results with minimal effort. Familiarize yourself with these features and learn when to use them effectively to enhance your compositions and storytelling.
  4. Experiment with Camera Settings: Adjusting the camera settings on your drone, such as ISO, shutter speed, aperture, and white balance, can significantly impact the quality of your images and videos. Experiment with different settings to find the optimal configuration for your specific shooting conditions, taking into account factors like lighting, subject motion, and desired depth of field.
  5. Master Aerial Composition Techniques: Develop your eye for aerial composition by studying the work of professional drone photographers and videographers. Learn how to apply fundamental principles of photography like the rule of thirds, leading lines, and symmetry, as well as specific techniques for aerial imaging, such as bird’s eye view, low-angle shots, and revealing shots.
  6. Understand the Importance of Lighting: As with traditional photography, lighting plays a crucial role in determining the mood, atmosphere, and visual impact of your drone images and videos. Learn how to use natural light to your advantage, capitalizing on the golden hour and other favorable lighting conditions, as well as techniques for minimizing glare, reflections, and unwanted shadows.
  7. Post-Processing and Editing: To bring out the full potential of your drone images and videos, invest time in learning post-processing and editing techniques. This includes adjusting color balance, contrast, and exposure, as well as advanced techniques such as panoramic stitching, HDR blending, and image stacking. For video, master the art of cutting, transitions, and color grading, as well as the use of sound design and music to complement and enhance your visual storytelling.

By dedicating time and effort to mastering these advanced drone photography and videography concepts and techniques, you will be well on your way to capturing breathtaking aerial images and videos that truly stand out.

As you continue to refine your skills, your creative vision will expand, and the possibilities for producing stunning aerial content will be virtually limitless.

How to Take Photos and Videos with an Underwater Drone

orange fish underwater with coral reef

Capturing stunning underwater photos and videos with underwater drones involves overcoming unique challenges posed by the aquatic environment, such as varying lighting conditions, water clarity, and the movement of marine life.

To enhance your underwater drone imagery, consider the following expert tips and techniques:

  1. Understand the Underwater Environment: Conduct thorough research on the location you plan to shoot in, considering factors such as water clarity, depth, temperature, marine life, and seasonal variations. This will help you anticipate potential challenges, plan your shots accordingly, and select the appropriate equipment and settings for the specific conditions.
  2. Master Underwater Drone Control: Practice controlling your drone in various underwater environments to develop the skills needed for steady and smooth navigation. Learn how to compensate for underwater currents, changes in buoyancy, and other factors that can affect your drone’s stability, as well as techniques for maneuvering close to subjects and structures without disturbing them or causing damage.
  3. Use Underwater Lights: Many underwater drones come with built-in lights or support external lighting systems. Using additional lighting can significantly improve image quality in low-light conditions, help bring out the colors of underwater subjects, and create dramatic contrasts and highlights. Experiment with different lighting angles, intensities, and color temperatures to achieve the desired effect.
  4. Develop Underwater Composition Techniques: Develop your eye for underwater composition by studying the work of professional underwater photographers and videographers. Learn how to apply fundamental principles of photography such as framing, leading lines, and negative space, as well as specific techniques for underwater imaging, such as close-focus wide-angle, macro, and over-under shots.
  5. Understand the Impact of Water Clarity and Color: Water clarity and color can have a significant impact on the quality of your underwater images and videos. Learn how to use camera settings such as white balance, color profiles, and filters to compensate for the color-casting effects of water and achieve more accurate and vibrant colors in your footage.
  6. Learn to Capture Marine Life: Marine life can be unpredictable and elusive, so it’s essential to develop patience and observation skills when shooting underwater. Familiarize yourself with the behavior and habits of the species you want to capture and learn techniques for approaching them without causing stress or disturbance.
  7. Post-Processing and Editing: To bring out the full potential of your underwater drone images and videos, invest time in learning postprocessing and editing techniques specific to the aquatic environment. This includes adjusting color balance, contrast, and exposure to compensate for the unique challenges of underwater imaging, as well as advanced techniques such as noise reduction, sharpening, and color correction.

By investing time and effort in honing these sophisticated underwater drone photography and videography concepts and techniques, you’ll be on the path to capturing exceptional underwater images and videos that genuinely distinguish themselves.

As you persist in sharpening your skills, your creative horizons will broaden, and the potential for creating remarkable underwater content will know no bounds.

Last Words

Drones have dramatically transformed photography and videography, providing unparalleled opportunities to capture mesmerizing visuals from the skies and the ocean depths.

As technology advances, drone capabilities will continue to expand, opening even more creative avenues for enthusiasts and professionals alike.

To make the most of drone photography and videography, it’s crucial to understand the different types of drones, their features, and their specific applications.

By mastering the controls, planning your shoots, and experimenting with various techniques, you can tap into the full potential of drone technology and create awe-inspiring images and videos.

As the popularity of drones continues to soar, it’s vital to stay informed about local laws and regulations to ensure responsible and safe operation.

As more people embrace drone technology, we can expect to see even more extraordinary aerial and underwater footage that pushes the boundaries of traditional photography and videography.

Drones have undeniably revolutionized the way we capture and share our world, enabling us to explore and document our surroundings like never before.

Whether you’re a seasoned professional or a curious beginner, there has never been a better time to take to the skies (or plunge beneath the waves) and discover the incredible possibilities that drone photography and videography have to offer.

Embrace this powerful technology and unleash your creativity, capturing the wonders of our world from heights and depths once unimaginable.